4 Characteristics of Entrepreneurship

Posted by Imam Larh on Saturday, 24 February 2018

1.  High Achieving Motives
Experts suggest that a person has an interest in entrepreneurship because of a certain motive, the motive of achievement. According to Gede Anggan Suhanda (in Suryana, 2003: 32) Achievement motive is a social value that emphasizes the desire to achieve the best to achieve personal satisfaction. The basic factor is the need that must be met. As proposed by Maslow (1934) on the theory of motivation

influenced by the level of needs, according to the level of satisfaction, namely physical needs, the need for security, the need for self-esteem and the need for self-actualization.
According to The Herzberg Theory, there are two motivational factors, namely:
  1. Driving factors
  2. Maintenance Factors
The need for entrepreneurial achievement is seen in the form of action to do something better and more efficient than previous. Entrepreneurs who have achievement motives, in general, has the following characteristics (Suryana, 2003: 33-34)
  1. Want to solve your own difficulties and problems arise in him.
  2. Always need immediate feedback to see successes and failures.
  3. Have a high personal responsibility.
  4. Dare to face risks with full calculation.
  5. Likes challenges and sees challenges in a balanced way.
If the task is very light, then the entrepreneur feels fewer challenges, but he always avoids the most difficult challenges that enable the achievement of success very low. Motivation comes from the Latin "move" which means to move or move, (Steers and Porter, 1991: 5).
Motives generate energy mobilization (spirit) and strengthen one's behavior. In general, the motive is the same as the drive. Beck (1990: 19), based on a regulatory approach, states "drive" just like a vehicle that has a mechanism to bring and direct one's behavior.
Accordingly, on the theory of Weiner's attribution (Gredler, 1991: 452) there are two loci causes of success or achievement. 

The intrinsic causes of the focus include:
(1) ability,
(2) business, and
(3) mood, such as fatigue and health.

Extrinsic causes include:
(1) difficult tasks,
(2) good luck and
(3) people's help

Achievement motivation contains two aspects, namely:
(1) characterize resilience and a fear of failure and
(2) increase the useful effort and expect success

(McClelland, 1976: 74-75). However, Travers (1982: 435) says that there are two important categories of achievement motivation, expecting success and fear of failure. The above description shows that there are at least two indicators of achievement motivation (high), namely ability and effort. 

However, when compared with the intrinsic attribution of Wainer, there are three indicators of high achievement motivation: ability, effort, and mood (health). Based on the above description, the essence of achievement motivation in this research is the stimuli or impulses that exist in our underlying self to learn and strive to achieve the expected learning achievement.

2. Always Perspective
An entrepreneur should be able to look more optimistically. Looking forward to thinking and Enterprises take full advantage of opportunities. Future-oriented people are people who have the perceptive and the future view. Because having a long-term view of the future then he will always try to work and work (Suryana, 2003: 23). 

The key to the ability to create something new and different from the existing one. Despite the possible risks, a perspective person must remain steadfast in the search for opportunities for challenges for future renewal. A far-sighted view makes entrepreneurs less satisfied with the initiative and work that already exists. Therefore he must prepare it by looking for an opportunity.

3. Have High Creativity
According to Theodore Levit, creativity is the ability to new and different. According to Levit, creativity is thinking something new, therefore according to entrepreneurship is thinking and acting something new or thinking something old with new ways. 

According to Zimmerer in a book written Suryana (2003: 24) entitled "Entrepreneurship And The New Venture Formation", reveals that creative ideas often arise when the entrepreneur sees something old and thinks something new and different. Creativity is therefore to create something from which it does not exist. Innovation is the ability to apply creativity in order to solve personal and opportunities to enhance and enrich life.

From the above definition, creativity contains understanding, namely:
  1. Creativity is creating something that does not exist.
  2. The results of today's cooperation to improve the past in a new way.
  3. Replace something with something simpler and better.
According to Zimmerer (1996: 7), Creativity ideas often arise when the entrepreneur sees something old and thinks something new and different. Creativity is therefore to create something from which it originally does not exist. The secret of entrepreneurship is in creating value-added goods and services lies in the application
creativity and innovation to solve problems and seize the opportunities faced each day. Take the initiative is to do something without waiting for orders. The habit of taking the initiative will give birth to creativity (creativity) after it gave birth to innovation.

According to Zimmerer, there are seven steps creative thinking process in entrepreneurship, namely:
Stage 1: Preparation
Stage 2: Investigation
Stage 3: Transformation
Stage 4: Hatching
Stage 5: Lighting
Stage 6: Testing
Stage 7: Implementation

4. Has a High Innovative Behavior
Being a reliable entrepreneur is not easy. But it is not as difficult as many people imagine because of everyone in learning entrepreneurship. According to Poppy King, a young entrepreneur from Australia who has been in business since the age of 18, there are three things that an entrepreneur always faces in any field: first, obstacle; second, hardship; third, very rewarding life (reward or profit sharing) life is stunning). 

Truly entrepreneurship is to some extent for everyone. Why? enough reason to say that. First, everyone has dreams, dreams, or at least hope to improve the quality of life as a human being. It is a kind of "intuition" that encourages normal human beings to work and strive. This "intuition" is concerned with one of human potential, the power of the creative imagination. Since man is the only creature of God who, among other things, is endowed with the power of creative imagination, he can use it to think. 

That thought can be directed to the past, the present, and the future.

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