Quality Control

Posted by Imam Larh on Wednesday, 28 March 2018

1. Standardization and Product Quality

What is meant by standardization is the determination of the basis or specification of both products, materials, and processes. This specification will ultimately determine the quality of the product. Quality shows the attributes attached to a product, so the product is known and has value. 

Such attributes or attributes, such as shape, taste, color, design, product convenience, and so on. The standards and quality of a product are two things that are always related because the adjustment of products with the established standards is part of quality control, which has a purpose other than to satisfy consumers as well as to reduce costs (efficiency).

Quality control aims to prevent deviations from deviations, materials, labor, time and quality of finished goods and to correct errors that have occurred before, during and after the production process takes place. 

Therefore, in order to control the quality of the product can be done well, then the company needs to provide:
  1. Quality control officers input, process, and output.
  2. Quality measuring tools and quality guidelines
  3. Reflexive supervisory premises, so monitoring can be done perfectly
  4. Limits on storage time, both raw/auxiliary materials, semi-finished materials or finished goods.
  5. Where possible, incentives for workers who can meet the required work standards.
The standards of the quality of a product are determined by considering among others:

a) The quality of competitors' products.

Minimal companies produce products with the same quality as competitors, wherever possible better than competitors.

b) The final benefit/benefit of the product.

Whether the product is the end product (consumer goods) or intermediate goods for further production (producer goods).

c) The balance between price and quality.

The company must adjust the selling price by the quality of the product, or with the certain quality, the company can only sell for a certain price. Consumers will not hesitate to buy a high price if the quality of the product is guaranteed or super quality.

These considerations will, of course, involve parties or other parts that exist within a company, such as marketing, engineering, finance and personnel, and other parts. In every series of standardization, the production process is necessary, this is because standardization has the following advantages:
  • The amount of material (raw and auxiliary) required can be taken into account so that the company can determine the optimal amount of raw material inventory. The optimal inventory determination is described in module 16.
  • Facilitate the production process and supervision of the production process
  • Encouraging employee morale. This is because they know how much they will do, so they know how much income they will receive
  • The existence of efficiency, both materials, time and energy, during the production process or after the production process or for marketing.
2. Quality Control
Quality control is generally done by using approach approaches, ie input approach, process approach, and expenditure approach.

a. Input Approach
The quality of an end product is determined by the quality of input (input) production, both raw materials (raw and auxiliary), labor and facilities/production equipment used. Therefore, input quality control is very important. 

Quality control based on input approach is controlling by setting a very strict standard to input production process specification. The raw material specifications are checked carefully, the labor used is strictly selected, as well as the facilities or production equipment carefully selected as well.

In this section quality control with input, approaches will focus on material (raw and auxiliary) issues, as labor issues and equipment or production facilities are discussed in other modules.

1) Quality control of raw materials

One of the input (input) production process that determines the quality of the product is the input of raw materials and auxiliary. Material quality control will determine whether or not good quality of output (output). For that the steps that must be considered in the quality control of materials are as follows:

1. Selection of material resources, including the following:
  1. Quality of material to be used
  2. Procurement capability from suppliers/suppliers
  3. Material price
Considering these three things, it allows the company to avoid losses and continuity of production will be assured. Success in the selection of these three things can be done by:

(a) Examining past experiences.

Past experience is of course only owned by the company/entrepreneur who has been running and experienced relationships with various parties, especially the supplier. In this case, the company or entrepreneur must be able to choose a supplier that is not harmful. This can be observed from the experience of the company related to the supplier so far, such as:

1. Tabiat and character and customs of suppliers in order delivery.
In this case, look for a supplier who has an honest or trustworthy character or character.

2. Quality of materials offered.
Between the quality of the goods received must be the same as the quality of the material offered which is usually in the form of samples or samples. Look for a supplier that can meet that.

3. Timeliness of delivery.
Customs supplier in terms of order delivery is also a consideration, look for suppliers that have been always on time in sending goods orders.

4. Material Damage.
Is the material damage always borne by the supplier or by the ordering party? Look for a supplier who is always responsible and guarantees material damage.

(b) Evaluation

For new companies or entrepreneurs usually, do not have past experience in dealing with the suppliers. Therefore for new entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs material selection can be done by conducting evaluation activities. 

As for entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs who already have experience will conduct evaluation activities if there are some new suppliers that have not been known company. Evaluation activities can be done by conducting surveys and interviews with the suppliers, to obtain a picture of how the actual situation of the supplier. 

Thus the company will be able to determine which suppliers to be partners in the procurement of materials for production purposes.

2. Inspection of procurement documents and inspection of materials receipt.

The importance that at the time of receipt of material ordered no mistakes, then there should be a purchase contract or purchase order. 

Everything written in the order letter must be properly researched as a document which will later explain if something happens that is not desirable in the future, for example, if there is a denial of the supplier at the time of receipt of the order, the quality does not match the example or delivery schedule is late, and etc. Therefore, in the letter of order is expressly stated matters relating to:
  1. Quality of goods desired by the company as the buyer or party.
  2. The agreed price and the quantity ordered.
  3. Delivery schedule.
  4. Another agreement, if any deviations are possible.
3. Material storage.

After the goods ordered are received by the company and in accordance with the purchase contract documents, then the goods are stored in the warehouse for a while until used in the production process. In order to avoid errors, the goods that enter the warehouse need to be done:
  • Giving signs that are easy to read or seen on the material/stuff that is stored.
  • Packaging and arrangement of materials that are stored well and regularly, so that the quality of goods is maintained.
  • Provision of expiry time (expiration) markers, especially for materials that have a usage time limit.
  • It is necessary to establish a warehouse collection system according to the characteristics of each material. There are two methods to choose from:
(a) FIFO (First in First out) method means that the ingredients entering the warehouse are first taken or removed for use first.

(b) The LIFO method (Least in First out), means the material that goes into the warehouse later, taken or removed for use first.

2) Quality control of semi-finished materials.

This control is intended to find out whether there is a semi-finished material that is damaged. There are two types of damage that may occur and need special handling, so as not to disappoint consumers and can reduce production costs further, namely:

a) Severe damage.

In case of heavy damage to the semi-finished material, then the material must be removed from the next production process. It is intended not to interfere with the process and quality of other materials.

b) In case of damage, but it can still be repaired, then the semi-finished material must be repaired immediately. Thus, in addition to reducing production costs also to meet the demand that must be met immediately after the semi-finished material is repaired first.

3) Quality control of finished goods.

Quality control of finished goods must be done carefully and thoroughly. This is because the quality of finished goods almost shows the overall quality of the product. 

Thus, if quality controls on raw and auxiliary materials and process quality control have been carried out, then the quality of the finished goods is itself under control. In other words, when output or finished goods are in compliance with quality standards, there is no problem with the control of raw materials and semi-finished materials.

b. Process Approach.

Quality control with process approach is done through strict control over the standard of production process run. Every worker who runs a production process works or carries on activities in accordance with those specified in the guidelines. In addition, every worker seeks to minimize irregularities, and any damage to the facility is promptly repaired. 

Prior to the production process, each worker first given the guidance of the implementation of the production process and must really understand it until the worker knows what to do and try to optimally perform in accordance with the guidelines.

c. Output Approach.

Quality control by using the output approach is done by looking at the suitability of the final product with the order or standard set, that is done by looking at and checking the product samples. In addition, control with the output approach is also applied to the final product storage facility.

Thus, each end product (output) will be checked for conformance to a predefined standard, which is called a product sample.

3. Quality Control Benefits

As it is known that every company or entrepreneur strives to gain the maximum profit and every customer is so. Consumers will be looking for goods with reasonable price and quality of goods accordingly or if possible good quality. To achieve the goals of both parties is required an effort, in this case, is in the form of product quality control.

Production quality control is required for the products produced in accordance with the production plan. Therefore, with controlled production quality, good quality control with input approach, process and output, it will give some benefits, both for the company and for the consumer.

1) Benefits for the company:

a) Achieving efficiency, due to:
  • No waste of raw/auxiliary materials
  • No waste of time and energy.
b) Suppress cost, so the average cost and the selling price become low.
c) Increase sales, in addition, because the selling price is relatively low also because the quality of goods is guaranteed.

2) The benefit for consumers is that consumers are satisfied because they can get quality goods at competitive price.

c. Summary

1. Standardization is the determination of the basis or specification of both products, materials, and processes. Whereas, the quality shows attributes attached to a product so that the product is known and has value.

2. Quality control aims to prevent the occurrence of irregularities, both materials, energy, time and quality of finished goods and to correct errors that have occurred before, during and after the production process takes place

3. Quality control aims to prevent the occurrence of irregularities, both materials, energy, time and quality of finished goods and to correct errors that have occurred before both, during and after the production process takes place.

4. Quality control based on input approach is controlling by setting a very strict standard to input production process specification.

5. Quality control with process approach is carried out through strict control over the standard production process run. Every worker who runs the production process works or carries on activities in accordance with those set forth in the guidelines which have been set.

6. Quality control by using the output approach is done by looking at the suitability of the final product with the order or standard set, that is done by looking at and checking the product samples.

7. Production quality control is required for the products produced in accordance with the production plan. Therefore, with controlled production quality, good quality control with input approach, process and output, it will give some benefits, both for the company and for the consumer.

Previous
« Prev Post

Related Posts

23:22

0 comments:

Post a Comment