Economic Development

Posted by Imam Larh on Tuesday, 3 April 2018

Economic Development
Once you understand the problems of employment faced by the state, especially the problem of unemployment, then we will discuss the development of the cause of unemployment in a country related

with development efforts undertaken by the country. In everyday life, you often hear people talking about development. What do you think is development?

1. Understanding

Prior to 1970, development was defined as a process that caused a population's per capita income to increase in the long term. In that sense, development is solely seen as an economic phenomenon so that the development is undertaken only prioritizes economic development and override the development of other fields.

The result is high economic growth but not accompanied by improvements in living standards of most people, the absolute level of poverty is higher, income inequality is increasingly striking, the number of unemployed is getting bigger, and the increasingly bloated foreign debt.

Now, this sense of development is much more developed. The emphasis is not only on economics. One of them, as Todaro (2000) points out, is that development is a multidimensional process that encompasses fundamental changes 

to the social structure, public attitudes, and national institutions, in addition to pursuing accelerated economic growth, handling income inequality, and poverty alleviation. Of the two meanings of development above of course you can see the difference, is not it?

2. Purpose

If you do something of course have a goal to be achieved. For example, you study every day because you want to achieve the best learning achievement. Likewise with the state in the development, of course, has a goal that wants to be realized for the people, namely
  1. Increasing the availability and expansion of the distribution of basic necessities of life, such as food, clothing, shelter, health, education, and security;
  2. Improving the standard of living, including income generation, the addition of employment provision, improving the quality of education, and increasing attention to cultural and humanitarian values so that in addition to materially improving the welfare of society, it also fosters identity as a person and nation;
  3. Expanding economic and social choices for each individual and nation as a whole by liberating oneself and the nation from attitudes of worship and dependence on others or other nations.
Thus, development has three core values, namely
  1. Adequacy, meaning the ability to meet basic needs;
  2. Identity, meaning to be a complete human being;
  3. Freedom from the attitude of indulgence, meaning the ability to make choices on their own.
For the international sphere, at the United Nations Summit in 1990 an international development goal has been developed or known for its milineum development purposes, which continues with the signing of the Millennium Declaration in 2000 by 189 member governments of the United Nations. 

The Millennium Development Goal is the commitment of the international community to the development of a vision of development that strongly promotes human development as the key to achieving sustainable social and economic development by creating and developing global partnerships and partnerships. The Millennium Development Goals (1990-2015) are as follows.

a. Eradicate poverty and hunger
Reduce half of the world's population who earn less than the US $ 1 a day and starve.

b. Achieve universal primary education
Ensure that every boy and girl get and complete the basic education stage.

c. Encourage gender equality and empower women
Reduce gender differences and discrimination in primary and secondary education, especially for 2005 and for all levels by 2015.

d. Reduce child mortality
Reduce the mortality rate of children under 5 years old to two-thirds.

e. Improve maternal health
Reduce the maternal mortality ratio to 75% in childbirth.

f. Fighting HIV / AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
Stop and start the prevention of the spread of HIV / AIDS and the symptoms of malaria and other serious illnesses.

g. Ensure environmental sustainability

  1. Integrate the principles of sustainable development in country policies and programs and rehabilitate lost environmental resources.
  2. By 2015 it is expected that the number of people who do not have access to safe drinking water is reduced by half.
  3. By 2020 it is expected to achieve significant improvements in lives for at least 100 million people living in slums.
h. Develop a global partnership for development
  1. Develop further open trade and financial systems that involve a commitment to honest and clean management arrangements, development and reduction of national and international poverty levels.
  2. Assisting the special needs of disadvantaged countries, remote countries, and small islands.
  3. Comprehensively seeks agreement on the debt problems of developing countries.
  4. Develop a good productive enterprise run for young people.
  5. In cooperation with private parties, building up the advantages of new technologies, especially information and communication technologies.
3. Indicators

At the end of each semester, you will receive a report on the results of the study which gives you an idea of how far the learning achievement has been achieved. Similarly, the development that has been done by a country that needs indicators that describe comprehensively the development and the results and see the positive or negative impact of development.

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