Employment

Posted by Imam Larh on Tuesday, 3 April 2018

Employment
Today life you have to face increasingly complex. In order for you to survive in your future life, you must be able to face challenges. For that must understand well the various problems that may later be faced, among them the problem of employment.

1. Resident as a Resource in Economic Development

The role of the population as a human resource in development is a very basic thing for you to understand. An over-populated population will not automatically become a large capital for development in a country, it can even be a burden or a burden for other residents Of the entire workforce in a country, not all have the opportunity to work so that the workforce is grouped into the labor force working and unemployed workforce (open unemployed).

Work is the activity of doing a job with the intention of obtaining or helping to earn income or profit for at least one hour in a week in a row and not interrupted. Working forces are categorized as working full-time if within a week have hours of work for 35 hours or more.

Non-labor force workers are those who are still in school, taking care of the household, and others, such as mentally or otherwise, that make a person unproductive.

2. Employment Opportunities

The state of employment in a country is one of the factors related to the problem of unemployment. Employment opportunity is an opportunity for the population to perform its functions as an economic source in the production process to achieve prosperity.

Job opportunities include opportunities for work, opportunities to work according to education and skills, and opportunities for self-development. The more people who work means the wider the employment opportunities. Job opportunities are divided into two groups, namely
  1. Permanent employment, meaning employment opportunities that enable people to work continuously until they retire or are unable to work;
  2. Temporary employment opportunities, meaning employment opportunities that only allow people to work in a relatively short time, then unemployed to wait for new job opportunities.
In the employment, balance is usually seen between the number of the labor force and the number of available employment opportunities. If the workforce is greater than employment, there is unemployment.

3. Unemployment

Are there any unemployed neighborhoods in your neighborhood today? To be able to answer it then first you must know the understanding of the unemployed itself. Unemployment is of two kinds: open unemployment and unemployment. 

What makes them different? The open unemployment includes the entire labor force who are looking for work, whether they are looking for a job first or who have worked before. The Central Bureau of Statistics categorizes the open unemployed into four, as can be seen in the following table.

4. Types of Unemployment

Unemployment that exists in a country can be grouped by causal factors,
  1. Voluntary unemployment, ie voluntary unemployment for seeking better income jobs;
  2. Unemployment technology, the unemployment caused by the increasing use of machine tools, computerization, and even robots in the production process, which is a technology product, this resulted in the use of labor to be reduced.
  3. Deflationary unemployment, that is, unemployment caused by a decline in a country's economic activity so that people's demand decreases, this results in the company reducing its production capacity, or even stopping its production, resulting in a reduction of workers;
  4. Structural unemployment, ie unemployment caused by changes in the economic structure of a country, for example from the structure of the agricultural economy to the industrial economic structure, this causes the required labor qualification not in accordance with the available labor, resulting in unemployment.
5. Causes of Unemployment

The causes of unemployment in a country, among them are as follows.
  1. Demographic pressure with large numbers and composition of the workforce.
  2. Economic growth is much smaller than the growth of the labor force.
  3. The number of available jobs is smaller than the number of job seekers.
  4. Competence of job seekers is not in accordance with the job market.
  5. The occurrence of termination of employment caused by, among others, companies that close or reduce the field of business due to economic crisis or security that is less conducive, regulations that impede investment, barriers in the export-import process, and so forth.
  6. Ineffective job market information for job seekers.
  7. Various regulations and bureaucratic behavior that is less conducive to business development.
  8. Still the difficulty of foreign capital inflows.
  9. The investment climate is not conducive.
  10. The pressure of wage increases in the midst of a still-sluggish business world.
  11. Poverty.
  12. Inequality of income.
  13. Urbanization.
  14. Unstable political stability.
  15. The protectionist behavior of a number of developed countries in accepting exports from developing countries.
  16. The existence of the global market.

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